Lung cancer is among the top deadliest and most common cancers in Thailand. Prevention or modifying at-risk behaviors would mitigate this public health crisis just as much as early diagnosis. Tumor markers are released by the body in response to cancer cells or in some cases are released by actual cancer cells. Current biomarkers are being assessed to identify and assess treatment response/therapeutic response and patient’s prognosis, but none has indicated early diagnosis or differentiate lung cancer patients from others with similar symptoms.
Biomass power plant has provided an alternative source of power. However, the biomass production produces enormous volume of waste especially fly ash and bottom ash. These ash materials are expensive to manage or eliminate. Experimental studies have been conducted to identify ways to reuse these waste materials, including road building. Both types of ash have similar properties to that of natural materials used in road construction as well as pozzolan, which is used to make concrete as it is an excellent binding material. However, because fly ash and bottom ash contain heavy metals and pollutants, further assessment on the environmental impact together with physiochemical characterization are more than necessary.